Free lesbochat - Accommodating cold temperature restrictions

There was consensus among aircraft operators that the safety implications of pilots on instrument approaches unknowingly flying lower than their altimeter indicated required action.

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Avoiding high churning and splash losses at low temperatures in gear boxes; developing remedies for more efficient lubrication of bearings and lubricated joints; and implementing a reliable and low- maintenance technology that enables vehicle wheel bearings to safely operate over wide temperatures require careful lubricant selection.

Fortunately, specially compounded mineral oils or synthetics are available that match cold flow requirements.1 In difficult cases, heating is needed for piping, reservoir and filters.

If the probability surpassed 1 percent on a segment of the approach, that segment received the temperature restriction.

The procedures most impacted were those found at high true altitudes, such as in mountainous areas, and those located in areas routinely seeing very cold temperatures, such as northern Alaska.

The study investigated all the instrument approach procedures at civil airports with runways of at least 2,500 feet in the continental United States and Alaska.

The FAA’s risk-based process identified the coldest temperatures at these airports over the last five years and calculated the probability of a pilot exceeding the required obstacle clearance on a nonstandard day.A cold environment challenges the worker in three ways: by air temperature, air movement (wind speed), and humidity (wetness).In order to work safely, these challenges have to be counterbalanced by proper insulation (layered protective clothing), by physical activity and by controlled exposure to cold (work/rest schedule).In the 1990s, the FAA began researching the impact that cold temperatures have on obstacle clearance for pilots on instrument approaches.Several pilots had reported that when flying approaches in very low temperatures that they found themselves dangerously close to terrain.In such conditions, an approximate correction is 4 per cent height increase for every 10°C below standard temperature as measured at the altimeter setting source.

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